Extreme Latitudes and Apotosis

In addition to the frigid temperatures of extremes latitudes, it has recently been evidenced that long-term exposure to darkness, such as that experienced during a winter solstice, faciliates neurodegeneration. Below is an image illustrating accelerated apotosis in a dopaminergic neuron within the central drug reward circuit. Serotonergic and acetylcholinergic neurons are also damaged from long-term exposure to darkness, which in turn, may  disrupt the consolidation of sleep and wake, increase the risk of developing depression, and catalyze alcohol abuse and dependence.

Apotosis of Aminergic Neurons Following Long-Term Exposure to Constant Darkness

Apotosis in a Dopaminergic Neuron

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